Koneswaram temple also Thirukoneswaram is a Hindu temple which is located in the town Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. It is dedicated to main deity in Shaivism namely Lord Siva and is one of the five ancient Sivan temples around the island.
Trincomalee is a natural deep-water harbor that attracted great sea farers like Marco Polo, Ptolemy and sea traders from China and East Asia from the ancient times. The local name Thirukonamalai means "Holy East Hill". Kona is a derivative of the 1st Century Tamil word Kuna meaning East. Trinco as it is commonly called has been a sea port since the days of the ancient Kings and one of the British Empire's most important ports in Asia during the second world war. From 1941-45, Trinco had been the headquarters of Lord Louis Mountbatten Allied Southeast Asia commander.
There is evidence that indicates at least some of the later Sinhalese Buddhist kings too maintained the temple although Buddhist King Mahasena was reported to have destroyed it and built a Buddhist temple and Dagoba in its place.
This shrine was demolished in 1622 by the Portuguese (who called it the Temple of a Thousand Columns), who fortified the heights with the materials derived from its destruction. Some of the artefacts from the demolished temple were kept in the Lisbon Museum. The stone inscription by Kulakottan has a dual fish emblem and is engraved with a prophesy stating that after 1500s, westerners with different eye colors will rule the country for the ensuing 500 years and at the end of it, the rule will revert back to Vadugus. Trincomalee was next held by the Dutch and subsequently by them and the French alternately, till the capture of Sri Lanka by the British in 1795.
The hill face is rugged and is called 'Ravanan Veddu'. As Trinco is full of seismic and volcanic activity as seen in Kanniya Hot Springs area, this rugged face of rock is a reminder of the movement of Earth's crust in this area.
Along with Ketheeswaram in Mannar, this temple was mentioned by one of the Bhakti era Tevaram literature by one of the Nayanmars, namely Sundarar in South India, indicating its popularity even in India.
Thirukonasala Vaipavam, written by the poet V. Akilesapillai is an important literary work in Tamil on the history of this temple.
After 1505 A.D, the temple was destroyed by Portuguese catholic colonialists (along with countless Buddhist, Hindu and Muslim places of worship around the island), while the main statue was taken out to town for a festive occasion. At this time Portuguese soldiers entered into the temple dressed as Iyer priests and robbed the temple. The temple was destroyed and its building materials were used in the construction of a nearby fort by the Portuguese.
After a gap of almost 450 years, after the Sri Lankan independence, some Sri Lankan Tamil hindu people of Trincomalee came together and built the present temple in 1952. In size it's very small compared to the original temple.
The annual festival at this temple attracts pilgrims from all parts of India.
About Shankari Devi Temple:
The famed SHANKARI Temple, in Sri Lanka, is one of the 18 Devi Temples (Ashta Dasha Shakti Peethas).
But almost nobody in Sri Lanka knew of any famous Devi Temple in the country. Even on Internet, not much authentic information was available. The temple is said to be in the famed town of Trincomalee on the eastern coast.
The Temple of Sri Shankari Devi according to the priest's in Trincomalee, say that the Portuguese who invaded the island in the 17th century completely cannon balled from their ship and demolished the cliff top Devi temple. In its site stands a lone pillar, as a mute spectator.
The present Shiva temple which is quite well known locally than the Shankari Temple was a recent construction. The Shiva is called as TRIKONESHVARA (Probably because it is in Trincomalee which is truly TRI CONA MALAI- meaning triangle shaped hill). There is a small Devi Shrine built adjacent the Shiva temple. The famed Bilva tree which is perched right on the edge of the hill some hundred meters above the Indian ocean. It is a exhilarating and spectacular sight to behold. All round, silence reflects which is needed most in this war torn nation rightfully called as a paradise. There is also a more famous Kali temple in the heart of the town to which devotees can make a visit en-route from the Shankari Temple.